Category Archives: Tasting around the world

Alsace – c’est moi

I’ve never been to Alsace, but when I next go wine-travelling, I promise you it will be at the top of my list. Why? Because its wines are so reliably consistent, or consistently reliable, or, simply delightful. And there’s this interesting duality in the wines which I can relate to: typically they are bone dry with a fierce acidity, but at the same time they display a charming, ripe and sweet fruity loveliness. Sweet and tart, hard and soft – in their bipolar character I can see my own personality reflected, kind of.

In recent years I have become much more interested in white wines. It’s not to say that reds don’t interest me, but there’s something lyrical, gentle, pretty and delicate about whites. It’s a bit like comparing the moon to the sun. I’m a moon person.

And as for Alsace, there are nice and pleasant wines at the cheaper end of the scale. These carry the ordinary ‘Alsace’ designation. They are clean, very refreshing and well made, but won’t leave a lasting impression. But then there are the grand crus, and many of these are just superb, especially at 4 years of age and older. What wines am I talking about? Like many other old European wine regions, Alsace has strict regulations as to what grape varieties may be grown there. It is also one of those old-world regions which have the less common custom of producing single varietal wines. This means no blends, and, unlike in Bordeaux or the Rhone Valley, for instance, you are more likely to find the name of the varietal on the label than names of estates or vineyards. Even though today the proportion of white grapes to reds is about 90 to 10 per cent in Alsace, historically this was not so: in the past it used to be around 50-50. The good news for red wines lovers is that Pinot Noir is making a comeback, and current legislation has made it possible to grow Pinot Noir grapes on grand cru sites.

The main white grapes of Alsace are Riesling and Pinot Gris. They are also called noble varieties. Two other noble varieties are Gewurztraminer and Muscat, and there are a further two or three that are permitted. At the particular tasting I attended the other week, we only had Riesling and Pinot Gris. Maybe it’s just me, but I can’t get very excited about the latter. I found those wines too fatty and bland, without much character. Riesling on the other hand… Riesling can also be pretty neutral but never bland. Even if there isn’t much going on in terms of flavours or aromas, there will always be plenty of acidity, freshness, liveliness to admire. And the reason I have suggested skipping plain Alsace wines and moving straight to the grand crus (the top classification) is that once you’ve tasted a grand cru, in hindsight anything else seems a bit of a waste of time.

At this recent CIVA (Conseil Interprofessionel des Vins d’Alsace) tasting I also had the good fortune to attend a Riesling masterclass with Eric Zwiebel MS, from whom I learnt, among other things, that grand cru Rieslings from low-yielding vineyards are wines to be laid down; they age well and are worth investing in. Alsace Rieslings vary greatly because their terroirs do. There are a large number of soil types, and they will produce wines of differing character, but at wine school we’ve of course learnt that the soil cannot be tasted in the wine so I’m still in two minds about this subject and would rather not speculate.

As for the vintages: the wines that struck me as particularly interesting and exciting were those from 2011 and 2010. Although the two vintages have a very different character (2011 was a late, warm vintage resulting in higher-alcohol, sweeter wines, whereas 2010 was cooler and its wines will apparently easily keep for thirty years or more), they have both produced some spectacular wines, I think. I found that the 2011 wines tended to come with beautiful, delicious, ripe fruit character and an oily texture. They were rich, complex, intense, with an invigorating mixture of firm acidity and mellow sweet fruitiness. The 2010s seemed to have a more serious, more savoury and less fruity profile. Less charm but lots of content, and future potential.

To name but a few:

Domaine Paul Blanck Alsace Grand Cru Schlossberg Riesling 2011

Not overly exuberant but still lots of ripe fruitiness and that combination of sweet and tart that Alsace does best.

Wunsch et Mann Alsace Grand Cru Hengst Riesling 2010

In this wine the more conventional honey and apricot notes combine with some quite original flavours. It has good depth, and a mineral, rubbery character.

Domaine Rieflé, Alsace Grand Cru Steinert, Riesling 2011

This wine has quite a bit of alcohol but it is complemented by zesty, upright acidity. The palate offers lots from citrus fruit to caramel, and great pebbly minerality.

Jean-Baptiste Adam, Alsace Grand Cru Wineck-Schlossberg, Riesling 2011

A sharper wine with an individual nose, and rubbery, savoury rather than fruity character on the palate.

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MASI – kings of Amarone

MASI is a large wine producer in the Veneto region of northern Italy, near lovely Verona. They specialize in the region’s top appellations Valpolicella and Amarone della Valpolicella. This is the boring factual info. The interesting part is that to get there you will drive around areas like the northern lakes, for instance Lago di Garda, or you can pop into Milan for a Campari, or maybe go a bit further east to check Veneto’s sparkling Proseccos. L1030022

For years Amarone della Valpolicella was the most impressive red wine I could think of. It had everything I found irresistible: rich, big, intense, heavy-going, quite alcoholic, and displaying that adorable cherry-chocolate flavour combination which … which I now think is actually quite hard to get right without making the wine too obvious, too loud. My teacher at wine school told us that Amarone was ‘meditation wine’, made to accompany long and deep conversations. This has stuck with me and so has the memory of the first, romantic encounter with this most romantic of wines. But if I want to be honest, no Amarone has seemed all that amazing since that tasting class back in school. But to come back to the present. I am standing outside the gates of MASI, one of the biggest producers in the region, and understandably I’m full of anticipation. They apparently produce five different Amarones!

A young woman shows me around the winery. Her name is Micaela and she tells me all about the MASI story. The winery has been going for six generations now as a family-owned business. They started in 1772 and were named after their first vineyard called Vaio dei masi meaning ‘little valley’. Today they collaborate with another family, the Alighieri, who are direct descendants of Dante. I guess that’s kind of normal in Italy.

The part that interests me the most is the drying room. Amarone is a dried-grape wine, which means that after harvest the grape bunches are laid out to dry in single layers on bamboo trays stacked on top of each other.L1030024 They look a bit like very low, multi-tiered bunk beds. The drying rooms are fairly dark and temperature-controlled. The drying goes on for nearly five months, from harvest to 1 February. Amarone, like many other old-world wines, is a blend of different grape varieties: Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara, and today a fourth, recently rediscovered old variety, Oseleta is added by MASI’s winemakers. Each variety contributes something else: colour, tannins, unique flavours or acidity. L1030025The drying at the MASI headquarters is computer-controlled but the company also have drying facilities in the hills, where it’s still the traditional combination of people and nature carrying out the work.

When the drying period is over, the grapes, which are now semi-dry, are pressed. You can imagine how little juice they will produce compared to fresh grapes, which explains why Amarone, which is made from 100% semi-dried grapes, is relatively expensive. But blends of regular and semi-dried grape wines are also made here.

StL1030029ylishly, this cherry-chocolate wine is first aged in locally produced cherry barrels. These barrels are very porous, which makes a quick oxygenation, i.e. quick ageing, possible. In one year, Micaela tells me, these wines age two years. Then they are moved to 600-litre barrels called fusto Veronese for further maturation. Amarone has a long life: 30-40 years easily. It’s a dry but very rich and intense red wine with high alcohol levels.

To my great disappointment, there is no chance to taste on this occasion, so comparing their five different Amarones remains a fantasy for now… but here’s hoping I can return before my tastes change and I become a fan of subtle Burgundies.  L1030052

What the bleep do we know… about the wines of Lebanon?

The average wine drinker, probably nothing. The connoisseur will have heard about, and possibly tasted, Chateau Musar. But thanks to Lebanese-born wine expert Michael Karam, who gave a presentation on the subject at the Emerging Regions tasting in September 2014, now we know there’s more to Lebanon than the oxidized Musar bottles that turn up at tastings as exotic examples of wines of the 70s.

Lebanon today produces around 7 million bottles of wine per year. This is very little indeed – any commercial producer will put out more than this. For example, to take a neighbouring country, Israel’s Carmel winery (and Israel is also a small producer) alone makes 15 million bottles annually. So we could call Lebanon a boutique, or even garage, wine country.

The majority of Lebanese wines come from the Bekaa Valley, mainly from its western parts and to some extent the eastern areas. The Bekaa Valley, Karam told us, is part of the historic triangle where wine originated thousands of years ago. The Phoenicians here may have been the first wine merchants. But the modern history of wine in Lebanon starts with the Jesuits, in the 19th century. Some monks were making their own wine from grapes brought from Algeria – mainly Cinsaut and Carignan. Then Domaine des Tourelles was established in 1868 by a Frenchman, and the French influence continued after the First World War, when Lebanon became French territory. Winemaking then got another push, and Chateau Musar was established in 1930, 50 miles north of Beirut, to supply the French with wine.

Lebanon gained independence in 1943 but the French wine culture was continued. It was only from the 1990s on that international varieties were beginning to be planted, and more and more new wineries established. Today there are 42 producers in the country, including such new names as Chateau Florentine, Chateau Ka, and Chateau Ksara. According to Karam, it is the Mediterranean red varieties, such as Cinsaut, Carignan, Mourvedre and Grenache, that best express Lebanese terroir and identity.

What future for the wines of Lebanon? With such a small number of producers and bottles, the aim clearly won’t be to conquer the international market, but Lebanese wines can be an exotic, interesting addition to the palette. The whites I have tasted were a bit too obviously oaky and the reds sometimes very tannic but the wines have a lot of spice, which I like. Some are now readily available in the UK (Ixsir, Ksara, Tourelles, and of course Musar) at a reasonable (though not inexpensive) price if you fancy serving local wines with your Lebanese-inspired dishes.

 

 

Some kosher recommendations

With the High Holy Days round the corner, some of you may be wondering what to stock up with for your festive meals. Below are some Israeli wines I’ve tasted over the past year and recommend heartily. All are kosher and none are mevushal.

 

WHITES

tavor sauv bTabor Adama Sauvignon Blanc 2013

With a wine like Sauvignon Blanc, which is appreciated for its freshness and youthful zing, always buy as recent a vintage as possible. With certain exceptions, mainly oak-aged examples (which should be marked as such, unless they’re French), this wine is not meant for ageing.

Tabor has really hit the nail on the head with this wine. It’s everything a Sauvignon Blanc should be – at least in Agi’s books: starting with an interesting and very fresh nose with a combination of citrus and tropical fruit and some grassiness. On the palate it’s medium-bodied and acidic, and has that prickly nettle component that I love so much and that’s a hallmark of Sauv Blanc. Some minerality on the finish. Very enjoyable and refreshing – certainly the best Israeli Sauvignon Blanc I have tasted.

Tabor winery is in Israel’s Galilee region, at the foot of Mount Tabor. They have also recently started making a lovely Roussanne (I think the first vintage was in 2012). It will be interesting to those of you who are looking for a grape variety that is a bit more unusual and less known to experiment with.

www.twc.co.il

Flam Blanc 2012

A blend of Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc, this wine attracts with a buttery, sweet honey nose and peach fruitiness. Lees ageing adds to its complexity, but it hasn’t seen any oak. The palate is restrained, very mineral and shows good acidity. Toastiness from the lees, and a slight prickle – perhaps a tiny bit of CO2 left in there? Peach, apple and citrus fruit. A more complex but still refreshing and crisp white.

www.flamwinery.com

 

ROSÉ

castel rose 2013

 

Castel Rosé 2013

I think I can say this without sounding too biased: everything Castel’s winemaker Eli Ben-Zaken touches turns to gold. The meticulous attention to detail that all Castel wines reflect is a blessing for us wine-lovers, and an example all Israeli winemakers ought to follow. The rosé is a relative newcomer at Castel, the first commercially produced vintage having been 2011. Over the years it’s been moving closer and closer to perfection. The 2013 vintage is even leaner, more delicate and more restrained than the previous year’s. The strawberry and peach fruitiness is still there but becoming more subdued, which results in a sleek, elegant wine with delightfully refreshing acidity.

www.castel.co.il

 

 

REDS

Tulip Syrah Reserve 2011

What makes Tulip winery special is not just their wines but their strong underlying ethical policy: they employ several people with mental disabilities from the local residential community in Kfar Tikvah, near Haifa. But regardless of ethics, Tulip’s Syrah Reserve is a serious and classy wine that I greatly enjoyed. A savoury nose of meaty, mushroomy aromas is followed by a smooth, balanced palate. The savouriness remains, but is complemented by intense spiciness. Long, spicy finish. Very nice, rich wine.

www.tulip-winery.co.il

yatir forest

Yatir Forest 2010

The wine’s name carries a double meaning: on the one hand it’s a reference to Yatir Forest in Israel’s Negev area; on the other it’s very appropriate thanks to the wine’s intense forest fruit character. Lots of fresh berries and blackcurrants will you find on nose and palate, together with coffee and pepper spice from oak-ageing. The tannins are still a bit grainy, but my guess is this one will age beautifully. Yummy.

www.yatir.net

 

 

Southern delights

May and June saw me mad busy studying for my final WSET exam. To take time off, I popped in to a couple of tastings of South African wines. It was time well spent. We tend to associate South Africa with inexpensive supermarket gluggers but how far that is from the full truth!

First of all, there’s a lot of winemaking history here. Did you know about Constantia, for instance? One of the most prestigious dessert wines ever, with a spectacular history going back to the 17th century. Hardly known today but it’s on its way back. More about Constantia later.

The two flagship wines of South Africa are Chenin Blanc and Pinotage. As most New World countries, South Africa also mainly produces varietal wines but this is of course a blanket statement and may not at all be true for certain producers or regions. Winemaking tendencies are changing, which means more restrained use of oak and allowing more room for vineyard expression, for example. But let’s look at the specifics.

CHENIN BLANC

One of the amazing things I learnt about Chenin Blanc is how multi-faceted this grape can be. Anything from light, fruity, easy-drinking refreshment to heavily oaked, aged, complex and rich. The styles are so varied no generalization can be made really. And even the most brilliant cost peanuts compared to Burgundy, although some of them easily compete with a rich and mature Chardonnay.

Rudera de Tradisie CB 2010

A fruit-driven example with sweet-and-sour freshness. Caramellized fruit, oak restrained, well-integrated alcohol. Great acidity and lots of flintiness, which I like. The wine rolls along your tongue as you enjoy a burst of apricot flavours. £16

Jean Daneel Signature CB 2003

One of my favourites at this tasting. First time round I found it way too oaky but as it aired it opened into something much more and the oak withdrew into the background. The wine shows much lees influence but this is well balanced by intense honeyed fruit and flinty minerality, plus fantastic acidity. This vintage is not available any longer so you’ll have to buy the 2011/2012 and wait a few years. £19-20

Beaumont Hope Marguerite CB 2012

A delightful, youthful, fresh wine, and the first in the tasting that I could easily identify as Chenin. Citrusy, green apple aromas on the nose, some oak and some sweet candy touch. The palate has more honeyed, apricot flavours and lovely acidity, paired with a lean body and medium alcohol – only 12.6%, very unusual for these warm-climate wines. £16-18

PINOTAGE

Pinotage is a modern grape. It was created in the 1920s in Stellenbosch by crossing the Pinot Noir and Cinsaut varieties. I guess the idea was to produce a hardy grape that would perform well (meaning high crops) in the warm South African vineyards. As we found out from Greg Sherwood MW, who introduced the wines to us, bush vines are not uncommon among the better producers, and some of them very old as well (meaning the vines, not the producers). Bush training is typically used in hot, dry areas where the grapes need protection from the heat of the sun. It’s a low-vigour training system, i.e. not very economical compared to other, higher-vigour systems, but with a high-yielding grape variety this may actually be good news for quality.

But to come back to the grape. Pinotage has a rather unseemly reputation for a pungent paint / solvent smell, but properly vinified examples do not display the unattractive aroma and can be rich, intense, interesting – and ageworthy. The wines listed below come from some of the top producers of Pinotage.

Kanonkop Pinotage 1999

A fruity and youthful wine, especially considering its age. The grapes came from bush-trained, 55-year-old vines. The fruit is a touch too jammy for my taste but some interesting leathery, smokey notes counterbalance the stewiness.

Simonsig Pinotage 2003

A wine of 14.8% ABV but well made enough for the alcohol not to show. Restrained with a smooth, soft palate. Coffee, smoke and red fruit dominate. Likeable.

Sumaridge Epitome 2009

A roughly 50-50 blend of Shiraz and Pinotage. A chewy, tannic wine with a savoury character. Coffee, mint, toast, and black cherrries. Loved this one.

Aaaaand the bonus: a 1966 Lanzerac Pinotage!

Light garnet, with quite a bit of sediment – understandably. It’s been sitting in that bottle for 48 years! Oxidized, medicinal nose, smokey. Lean body and acidity that is still great. Not much fruit to find here, but you get a strong herbal character and savoury mushroom notes instead. It surprises with an incredibly powerful, smoky (smoked ham, to be precise) finish.

Lanzerac 1966

Sake!

Well, actually, in Japan they don’t call it that. In Japanese sake is quite a generic term, meaning something like ‘booze’. This I found out after sparing no time or effort trying to explain to the non-English-speaking Japanese waitress that I wanted to have some sake. She just pointed at the drinks menu, throwing me a perplexed smile, implying, ‘Look, silly, these are all sakes.’ So, before we even begin, I must teach you the Japanese word for sake: NIHONSHU.

DSCF2509

Very long cordons on high-trained trunks – what an unusual sight!

While in Japan, I tasted a number of different alcoholic beverages, including shochu, a spirit that can be made from grains or fruits, and wine made from the Koshu grape when we visited the Kurambon winery near Mount Fuji. That was also quite interesting, especially to see how they train their vines (I think in an attempt to protect them from humidity and fungus infections). But the wines are made in essentially the same way.

Sake, on the other hand, is a different story altogether. It’s more like making beer (from the limited knowledge of beer-making that I have).

I and my family paid a visit to the Shin-Se brewery outside Kyoto. They weren’t quite used to welcoming tourists, apparently, but the fact that we had come all the way from Europe, and that I wanted to write up the story, seemed to help.

The brewery was a surprisingly old-fashioned plant, and most of its equipment couldn’t be described as high-tech by any stretch of the imagination. This is actually a general observation I have made about Japan. We associate it with the latest cutting-edge technology, which may be true in some sense, but in people’s lives this is not reflected at all. The cars they drive, the trains and buses, the buildings typically give the impression of worn-out objects from a different era.

ShinSe outside

Shin-Se from the outside.

Let’s start at the beginning. What we call sake is made from rice, and rice alone. But sake is a complicated matter, because how you clean the rice will produce several different types. So producers polish their grains to different levels of purity, to get closer to the starchy middle (for more expensive sake) or to include the rest as well (for cheaper products). The result is plain GINJO for less pure sake and DAIGINJO for a drink of purer starch content.

In Shine-Se ten different kinds of sake rice are used. These are fermented separately and produce separate brands or styles. In a high-quality sake, I was told, you won’t have more than two kinds of rice blended (but in commercial drinks anything goes).

sake

The technology may not be the latest, but hygiene is still very important

After washing and polishing, the rice is steamed for about 40 minutes. The water quality is considered very important, just like with beer, and producers tend to have their own source of water. The damp rice is then laid out thinly, in a single layer, on large flat trays and dried so that only the middle remains damp. The rice then undergoes a careful selection process and is then moved to a large flat basin, where it is allowed to pre-ferment for three days. This pre-fermentation serves to hydrolise the starches in the grain – that is, to convert the starches into sugar, which can then be fermented in the next stage. Our brewery uses cultivated yeasts to start the ferment, and temperatures can reach 33-37 C in the process. Temperature control is carried out manually as it is a very nuanced operation, our guide explained. The rice is under constant 24-hour surveillance at this stage to make sure temperatures don’t rise above 45-47 degrees.

When this hydrolisation process is over, the real ferment begins in large stainless steel tanks. 4 parts steamed rice are normally mixed with 1 part malted rice and water is added to create the mash. The tank is called SHUBO, meaning ‘mother of the sake’. The ferment, in various tanks, takes up to a month or so, at low temperatures.

When the fermentation is over, the brew is filtered – or not, in which case we get NIGORI, unfiltered sake white as milk. The sake is then left to rest in tanks (or less commonly in wooden casks) for several months. But some sakes, I was told, are allowed to mature for up to 30 years. Standard sake has an alcoholic strength of 15-16% but some reach 21-22%.sakes

Just like with most spirits and beers, what matters with sake is not the ‘vintage’ but a consistent house style. This is achieved through choice of grain and careful management of the fermentation process.

At Shin-Se we tasted a variety of sakes from cheaper and simpler to more complex and refined. Some were fruitier, others had pungent vegetable flavours and aromas. My favourite was a JUNMAI DAIGINJO, which means that it’s an all-rice sake, that is, no alcohol was added separately, and the rice was polished down to 50% (as opposed to 70% in a less pure plain sake, or 60% in a Ginjo).

One of the difficulties is, though, that all the labels only had Japanese script so it’s very hard to identify in hindsight what the full range was!

tasting away

the flight of sakes we tasted, going from right to left. Don’t ask me what the labels say!

 

Charlie and the Cider Factory

There’s a place in this world that I love more than any other. In fact I might even say I’m in love with it. It’s magical. Remote, but not too much. Quiet, but not deserted. Beautiful beyond words, but in a rugged, real kind of way.

Worth Matravers is a tiny village off the Purbeck coast in Dorset. And in this very special village there’s a very special pub, the Square and Compass, well over 200 years old. It sits on a hill top, looking down over the village and the sea. And the Square and Compass has an owner who makes his own cider, Charlie Newman. IMG00056-20100905-1504

I visit Worth about once a year (would love to go more often), always a different time of year. Most recently I went in March – and was disappointed to hear that last year’s ciders had run out and the new lot wasn’t quite ready yet. It had never occurred to me until then that the pub’s supply of home-made cider wasn’t endless. While this meant I had to make do with something from another local producer, it also gave me a great pretext to visit Charlie’s cellar and find out how he makes his cider.

Charlie’s family has run the pub for over a century now, his grandfather having acquired the licence in 1907. But the cider-making is a recent thing which Charlie started only eight years ago. ‘Beforehand I used to make country wines from all sorts of things. Then at the pub we started having a cider day once a year at harvest time, but it wasn’t going anywhere. In the end I decided to make my own cider.’

The apples come from various places in the area and Charlie now also grows his own fruit. He likes to work with a mix of varieties: he ferments the juice of nine different apples, including Bramley, Redstreak, American Mother, and Dabinett.

When the apples start coming in in September, they are carefully hand-selected and cleaned. Clean is crucial, he says, in order to avoid impurities and infections. The apples are crushed in a mill, put into thick plastic bags and pressed in Charlie’s hand-made press.

Charlie's hand-built cider press

Charlie’s hand-built cider press

The juice is then moved to poly barrels and wooden casks and starts to ferment naturally, on the lees, with indigenous yeast (that is, yeast floating around in the cellar and not artificially cultivated). Since it’s all a natural process and there’s no temperature control, the fermentation slows down and stops over the cold winter months, then recommences (malolactic fermentation) in March, ‘when the trees come into flower’, for a few more weeks. Around Easter-time the cider is normally ready. ‘Cider production suits a lazy guy, because it only keeps you busy once a year for a few weeks,’ Charlie remarks, smiling. But I don’t believe him. My impression is that he spends quite a bit of time pruning and planting and generally looking after the orchard where his apples grow. And then of course there’s the regular tasting and, whenever more cider is needed in the pub, blending.

Three blended ciders are made: sweet, medium, and dry. Charlie has given them pretty unusual names: Kiss Me Kate, Eve’s Idea, and Sat Down Be Cider. Then there are the ‘varietal’ ciders, from American Mother and Red Streak, for example. The oak casks come from France and were mainly used in Calvados production. The alcohol level of the final products is typically 7–7.5% ABV. Eight years ago Charlie started production with 4.5 thousand litres and has been increasing quantities every year. Now he’s reached his maximum capacity at 24.5 thousand litres (the cellar is rather small). How did he settle on the style of cider he makes? ‘The West Country has hard, dry, tannic ciders. The ones in the east are made mainly from eating apples and are lighter. I’m geographically in between the two, so I wanted my ciders also to reflect this in-between position.’

DSCF2463

measuring alcohol levels

We tasted four or five different ciders. Kiss Me Kate, which will ultimately be sweet, is at this point still very dry but Charlie sweetens it back by adding sugar. ‘People like the sweetness’, he tells me. Well I’m a dry cider person… This Kiss Me Kate, by the way, contains 12 different varieties! To me it had a taste of pears actually, and it is still yeasty and has a very interesting perfume. The varietal Dabinette was something else I found interesting, with a slight barnyard aroma, very perceptible smokiness from the oak, a tannic mouthfeel and a slightly sweeter palate than in the others.

DSCF2467

Charlie Newman and the Calvados casks

The ciders should be ready for drinking within a few weeks – may I be able to return soon to taste!